15 Ways Your Home Could Be Giving You Cancer

These innocent-looking items may be emitting harmful chemicals that could raise your risk of cancer.
Faucet filling water glass

You've been waiting all day for this: A chance to just go home and relax. You throw your keys on the kitchen counter and heat up some water for a soothing cup of tea. Then you take off your shoes, feel the soft carpet on your feet, and head to the bedroom to light a scented candle, fluff your cotton pillow, and climb right into bed.

Tomorrow, you'll pick up your dry cleaning. Tonight, you'll just sleep.

Sounds heavenly, right? Yet lurking in your safe haven could be a very unsafe collection of cancer-causing pollutants. Your bed, candle, carpet, sheets—even your tap water may contain or emit harmful chemicals that can raise your risk of cancer. The President's Cancer Panel warned Americans about certain dangers nearly a decade ago. And just this week, a brand-new study by the non-profit Environmental Working Group and Northeastern University linked nitrates in some drinking water to the development of more than 12,000 cases of cancer a year.

Not all cancers are preventable, but with some simple changes around the house, you can significantly lower your risk. Read this special report on the top 15 cancer-causing household items—and our recommended safer options—and put the "sweet" back in "home sweet home."


Tap Water

tap water

The headlines made national news just this week: Nitrate pollution in U.S. drinking water may be the cause of 12,594 cases of cancer, according to a peer-reviewed, "first of its kind national analysis" by the non-profit Environmental Working Group and researchers from Northeastern University.

So what are nitrates anyway? They're a naturally forming compound created when nitrogen combines with oxygen or ozone. Nitrogen is vital for all living things—and in the form of nitrate, nitrite, or ammonium, is key for plant growth. Many fertilizers use nitrogen as a key growth ingredient. But high levels of nitrates can be dangerous to health, particularly for pregnant women and babies according to the Environmental Protection Agency. Nitrates can make their way into drinking water via runoff from fertilized soil, water treatment plants, industrial pollution, malfunctions in septic or sewage tanks, or via the erosion of natural deposits.

Recommendation: If you suspect that nitrates may be in your drinking water, you can get it tested. Contact your state's certification officer for a list of labs in your area that can perform a test on your drinking water. Well water is at particular risk. If your drinking water comes from a well, have it tested regularly, at least once a year, after installing a treatment system to make sure the problem is controlled.



Woman sitting in armchair with feet on carpet at home

Everyone blames the family dog for giving off gas. But consider the rug. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, many carpets are made of synthetic fibers that have been treated with chemicals that "off-gas"—literally, give off gasses into your home. An activist group called The Center for Environmental Health did a study on six of the largest carpet manufacturers in the USA and found that all 12 carpets they tested positive for toxic substances linked to cancer, hormone disruption, respiratory disorders, and developmental health problems in children, among others.

It's especially concerning because Americans love their carpeting. According to the Carpet and Rug Institute, carpeting represents 51% of the floor-covering market in the United States. Certain conventional carpets are made with chemicals that may cause cancer, like formaldehyde, acetone—along with flame retardants. And you know that "new carpet" smell? While you may associate it with the excitement of a new or renovated home, that smell actually comes from chemical compounds that are linked to eye, nose, and respiratory complications.

Recommendation: Steer clear of rugs made of polypropylene, nylon, or acrylic—and go with healthier options like wool, jute, sisal, mohair, or organic cotton.


Bed and Crib Mattress

The man lifted the mattress to look at the bed frame on which he lay. He also inspects the mattress

One-third of your life is spent sleeping, but when you find out what may be lurking in your mattress, you might just lose some shut-eye. It may be chock-full of potentially toxic synthetic materials. In July 2007, a new regulation was passed that all mattresses are required to be flame retardant. In order to meet the flame retardant requirements, a mattress must be able to withstand exposure to a blowtorch for 70 seconds, which necessitates dousing the mattress in potentially toxic flame retardant chemicals.

The Consumer Product Safety Commission recently issued a strong new warning: "Consumers, especially pregnant women and young children, should avoid products containing organohalogen flame retardants (OFRs), a class of chemicals found in children's toys, mattresses, furniture, and the plastic casings of electronic devices." Why? Serious health issues like hormone disruption, reproductive problems, immune disorders, cancer, and learning deficits have been linked to the compounds in this chemical group.

Recommendation: Look for a toxin-free, organic or 100% wool or latex mattress for yourself and your child (especially an infant!). Look for labels that say GOTS–Global Organic Textile Standard—or GOLS—Global Organic Latex Standard. GOTS is a rigorous certification, which means at least 95% of the mattress materials are certified organic. Certain substances, like flame retardants and polyurethane (often used to make memory foam mattresses), are prohibited. GOLS is a specific certification that applies to latex mattresses and means only organic latex was used.


Cotton Pillowcases and Sheets


We just talked about your mattress. Now let's get between the sheets. Many sheets and pillows are made of conventionally grown cotton—which is one of the dirtiest, most pesticide-ridden crops in the world. The National Wildlife Federation reports that according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, "84 million pounds of pesticides were applied to the nation's 14.4 million acres of cotton in the year 2000, and more than two billion pounds of fertilizers were spread on those same fields." That's scary. The impact of conventional, pesticide-laden cotton impacts the environment, but can also impact your health. In fact, health issues from this type of toxic chemical exposure can range from headaches to asthma to cancer. When possible, buy organic cotton bedding, and be aware that your choices have wide-ranging ramifications.

Recommendation: Here's the great news: there are many excellent alternatives, including bamboo, linen, and organic cotton. Make the switch from conventional bed sheets and sleep tight


Fabric Softener and Dryer Sheets

fabric softener washing machine pour hand

Ok, we've talked about your mattress, we've talked about your conventional cotton sheets. Now we have to talk about how you wash those sheets. You may want to stay away from conventional fabric softeners and dryer sheets. The Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health found that some fabric softener sheets emit toxic chemicals. Among the most harmful ingredients: benzyl acetate (linked to pancreatic cancer), benzyl alcohol (upper respiratory tract irritant), ethanol (linked to central nervous system disorders), limonene (a known carcinogen) and chloroform (neurotoxin and carcinogen), among others.

Fabric softeners and dryer sheets are designed to both soften fabric fibers and give clothes a warm, clean-laundry smell—but may be delivering a "bouquet of VOCs" (volatile organic compounds) instead. The non-profit Environmental Working Group found that: "in-wash fabric softeners and heat-activated dryer sheets pack a powerful combination of chemicals that can harm your health, damage the environment and pollute the air, both inside and outside your home."

Recommendation: If you want a non-toxic option, try Seventh Generation's Natural Lavender Scent Fabric Softener or Ecover's Natural Fabric Softener. Both are good choices because they are made of vegetable products and natural essential oils instead of harsh and potentially toxic chemicals. Another healthy option are Eco Nuts Wool Dryer Balls.


Cosmetics and Beauty Products

Set of decorative cosmetics on color background

Yes—cosmetics and personal products make us look and feel and smell better, but would you still use the same items if you knew they could negatively impact your health? University of California, Berkeley reports that some chemicals commonly found in makeup and beauty products may contribute to the development of cancer—parabens are of particular concern. A common preservative used in foundations, body moisturizers, anti-aging creams, shaving cream/gels, shampoos, conditioners, and more—parabens help prevent bacterial growth from forming in your fave products. But beware… parabens can act as endocrine disruptors by mimicking estrogen, which is of particular concern because excess estrogen can drive tumor growth. To be safe, be paraben-free.

Recommendation: Scan ingredient lists of products to make sure what you're purchasing; parabens commonly show up on ingredient lists as methylparaben, propylparaben, ethylparaben, and butylparaben. Breast Cancer Action has a great resource that lists paraben-free, non-toxic beauty, and personal product options to make living healthy easier!


Air Freshener

Air freshener

Air fresheners are everywhere: bedrooms, bathrooms, cars, and more‚ and their ingredients go largely undisclosed due to regulatory protections on consumer product ingredients and fragrance formulations—with potentially hazardous chemicals hiding behind a black box of catch-all terms like "fragrance," "perfume, "'scent" or "parfum." The Journal of Building and Environment reports that this allows companies to hide harmful ingredients like phthalates, formaldehyde, and many other preservatives (many of which are known carcinogens) in their products—without the consumer knowing. Phthalates are of particular concern as they may be disruptive to the endocrine system. Studies in animals have shown harmful effects, though no conclusive link has been demonstrated in humans.

Recommendation: For a more natural and non-toxic alternative, try Grow Fragrance, made with 100% plant-based materials. Or perhaps, instead of using air fresheners, get rid of the real source of the smell (we're looking at you kitty litter!) or open a window and turn on a fan. Last, not least—our favorite stink vanquisher? A box of baking soda—a smart, safe, and effective way to reduce odors.


Scented Candles


They may be an essential part of your self-care routine, but experts say your love of scented candles may be causing you to breathe in dangerous toxins. One of the main culprits? Added fragrance. The National Institute of Health (NIH) released a survey of selected scented consumer goods that showed the products emitted more than 100 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including some which are classified as toxic or hazardous by federal laws. Paraffin is a problem too. Most candles are made with paraffin wax, which comes from petroleum—and petroleum-based candles emit varying levels of cancer-causing chemical compounds like toluene and benzene.

Recommendation: Here's how to set the mood in a healthier way: opt for natural wax candles that use soy. They are considered the cleanest because they only produce about a tenth of the soot typically created by paraffin candles!


Baby Bottles and Plastic Water Bottles

Three kinds of bottles and cups with water for baby

Plastic's fantastic, except when it isn't. Most of us are exposed to many plastic products every day—from baby bottles to toys to spatulas. But not all plastics are created equal. Research suggests that while all plastics may leach chemicals if scratched, degraded, or heated, some plastic by-products are particularly dangerous, like BPA (bisphenol A)—and may cause cancer in humans among a host of other serious issues with accumulated build up in the body. BPA is found in many plastic products, the linings of food and formula cans, dental sealants, and on paper cashier receipts to stabilize the ink.

This is the problem with BPA: it's an estrogen-mimicking industrial chemical that can be a potent hormone disruptor. It's of particular concern for women because estrogen can increase the risk of developing breast cancer—and for babies and children because they are far more susceptible to the adverse effects of chemical exposure than adults, even at far lower doses. The good news? In July of 2012, The Food and Drug Administration or FDA banned the use of BPA in baby bottles and children's drinking cups. The bad news? The prohibition does not apply to the use of BPA in other plastic containers.

Recommendation: Want to limit BPA in your life? Carry your own glass, steel, or ceramic water bottle; only use baby bottles and other children's food products that clearly state that they are BPA-free; and reduce how much canned food you consume.


Your Closet (Specifically Your Dry Cleaned Clothes)

Hangers with clean clothes in laundry

Dry cleaning is dirtier than you think. According to the National Institutes of Health dry cleaning can be a toxic—and likely carcinogenic—process due to the use of a chemical called perchloroethylene, or PERC. Despite its name, dry cleaning isn't dry at all: in lieu of water, cleaners use a liquid solvent to dissolve stains and grime on garments. The most commonly used chemical for this process is called PERC, used by up to 70% of all dry cleaners according to The Environmental Protection Agency. While effective as a stain and grease remover, it's also a known neurotoxin, carcinogen, and environmental hazard. Studies of workers who are regularly exposed to PERC show increased rates of various cancers, including lymphomas and esophagus, kidney, and bladder cancers. Despite the EPA ruling, California is the only state to pass legislation outright banning PERC. So what to do if you need clothes dry cleaned and want it done non-toxically?

Recommendation: Look for green dry cleaners in your area or try washing your clothing at home. We will let you in on a little secret: according to some fashion experts, many dry clean only labels are not accurate, meaning that the clothing item may actually be able to be washed by machine (gentle cycle) or by hand.


Couch and Loveseat

luxury comfortable pillow on sofa furniture decoration interior of room

Take a seat for this one: It's a story about a safety measure gone awry. In 1975, California passed a law requiring furniture manufacturers to treat their products with flame retardants to, well, protect against fires (at that time often caused by lackadaisical cigarette smoking). Soon all American furniture included flame retardants. But later it was found that these chemicals could migrate from the products into the people using them, causing endocrine disruption and neurotoxic effects, particularly for pregnant women and kids.

But here's some good news: California updated the law in 2013, and also in 2014, passing new regulations that indicate that is less likely that flame retardants will be part of the filling materials used for sofas and other upholstered furniture items. Yes–this means is that manufacturers are phasing out the use of these chemicals!

Recommendation: If you are making a couch (or other upholstered furniture) purchase and want your new piece to be non-toxic, pay attention to labeling and be sure to check the brand so that you know for certain. The store or website may not have all the information.


Granite Countertops

luxury comfortable pillow on sofa furniture decoration interior of room

Granite countertops are prized for their durability and beautiful appearance, but they can give off radon gas that could potentially be higher than the levels considered safe. Radon is "a cancer-causing natural radioactive gas that you can't see, smell or taste," according to the Environmental Protection Agency.

The Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry published a study which found that the radium content of certain colored granites was higher than others. (Radium is the immediate chemical precursor to radon, which means that radon emission is directly correlated with radium content.) Sometimes color does sound the alarm: red and pink granites had a 3.5 times higher radium content than black or grey granite.

Now—most experts say that the amount of radon emitted from your average granite countertop is not enough to impact health, but the only way to know for sure is to get your granite countertop tested. And note that the EPA advises that all homes be tested for radon – regardless of countertop material.

Recommendation: Knowledge is power. For more EPA information on radon, go to this page. And if you're renovating your kitchen, consider quartz or Corian countertops.


Nail Polish

Manicure nail paint purple color on white table at home

If you love to paint your nails, this warning is for you: several chemicals commonly found in nail polish and nail products are known carcinogens. Many nail polishes contain formaldehyde, a nail-hardening agent, which the Occupational Safety and Health Administration says can raise cancer risks, along with butyl acetate, a solvent, and ethyl methacrylate, the main ingredient in acrylic nails. Exposure to these carcinogenic chemicals can also lead to central nervous system damage and reproductive problems.

Recommendation: Nail polish lovers, fear not, there are some fantastic non-toxic nail polish options free of formaldehyde and other carcinogenic chemicals. Check out this shopping guide from the Sierra Club to find the right one for you!


Plastic-Wrapped Processed Food


It's designed to please your buds and wait patiently for your cravings on your pantry or refrigerator shelves, but there's an inconvenient truth lurking in your processed food: If it can stand the test of time (3 to 6 months at least) without going bad, it may also raise your risk of cancer. A study published by BMJ showed a correlation between consuming ultra-processed foods and a number of health disorders, including cardiovascular, coronary heart disease, as well as cancer. Further research needs to be done, but the study results seem to indicate that rapidly increasing consumption rates of highly processed foods, "may drive an increasing burden of cancer in the next decades," warn the researchers.

Recommendation: The great news? You don't have to give all of processed food up. Check these 15 Homemade Swaps for the Worst Ultra-Processed Foods and use real ingredients you can find in your kitchen to make them. 



Painting room

Love the smell of a freshly painted home? You may love it less after learning that that new-paint smell comes with a hidden cost to your health. House paint is one of the most common sources of volatile organic compounds or VOCs—which are known carcinogens. Here's why that matters: paint continues to release low levels of these toxic chemicals into the air for years after application. And as you might imagine, exposure is most potent when indoors. The Environmental Protection Agency states that "studies have found that levels of several organics average 2 to 5 times higher indoors than outdoors. During and for several hours immediately after certain activities, such as paint stripping, levels may be 1,000 times background outdoor levels." VOCs were once essential to the performance of house paint and finishes—but times have changed—you have now have access to a variety of non-toxic, low or no VOC paint options!

Recommendation: Water-based paints tend to be safer than solvent-based paints. Here are some of the best eco-friendly paint options so you can spruce your home up safely!

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